(1) EURELECTRIC Conference, “The Value of Storage for the Clean Energy Transition,” Eurelectric, Brussels, Belgium, December 7, 2017, https://www3.eurelectric.org/events/2017/the-value-of-storage-for-the-clean-energy-transition.
(2) Munsell, Mike, “US Residential Grid-Tied Energy Storage Will Overtake Off-Grid Storage in 2017,” Greentech Media, September 26, 2017, www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/us-residential-grid-tied-energy-storage-is-overtaking-off-grid-storage.
(3) Spector, Julian, “Residential Batteries Almost Beat Out Utility-Scale Deployments Last Quarter,” Greentech Media, June 6, 2018, https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/residential-batteries-almost-beat-utility-scale-deployments-last-quarter.
(4) Weaver, John, “IRS Rules Energy Storage Upgrade to Solar ITC Eligible,” PV Magazine, March 5, 2018, https://pv-magazine-usa.com/2018/03/05/irs-rules-energy-storage-upgrade-to-solar-itc-eligible. See also, St. John, Jeff, “IRS Letter on Home Batteries Could ‘Open Floodgates for Residential Storage Retrofits’,” Greentech Media, March 5, 2018, www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/irs-says-that-batteries-can-take-the-federal-tax-credit#gs.4QcdMhA.
(5) sonnen, inc., “Mandalay Homes and sonnen Partner to Build “Clean Energy Communities” in Arizona, Establishing the Blueprint for the Electricity Grid of the Future,” Cision PR Newswire, October 12, 2017, www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/mandalay-homes-and-sonnen-partner-to-build-clean-energy-communities-in-arizona-establishing-the-blueprint-for-the-electricity-grid-of-the-future-300536150.html.
(6) Lambert, Fred, “Tesla is installing Powerwalls and Solar Power on 50,000 homes to Create Biggest Virtual Power Plant in the World,” Electrek, February 4, 2018, https://electrek.co/2018/02/04/tesla-powerwall-solar-virtual-power-plant.
(7) Green Mountain Power Press Release, “GMP Launches New Comprehensive Energy Home Solution from Tesla to Lower Costs for Customers,” Green Mountain Power, May 12, 2017, www.greenmountainpower.com/press/gmp-launches-new-comprehensive-energy-home-solution-tesla-lower-costs-customers.
(8) Hoium, Travis, “Residential Energy Storage Systems Ready for Prime Time,” Nasdaq. December 30, 2017, www.nasdaq.com/article/residential-energy-storage-systems-ready-for-prime-time-cm898662.
(9) National Grid, “National Grid Announces Home Batteries Are Now Eligible for ConnectedSolutions Program across Massachusetts and Rhode Island,” June 2018, https://news.nationalgridus.com/2018/06/national-grid-announces-home-batteries-are-now-eligible-for-connectedsolutions-program-across-massachusetts-and-rhode-island/
(10) Clean Energy Group, “Massachusetts Battery Storage Measures: Benefits and Costs,” July 2018 https://www.cleanegroup.org/ceg-resources/resource/massachusetts-battery-storage-measures-benefits-and-costs/
(11) Clean Energy Group, “McKnight Lane Redevelopment Project.” Featured Resilient Power Installations, 2017, www.cleanegroup.org/ceg-projects/resilient-power-project/featured-installations/mcknight-lane.
(12) Mullendore, Seth, “‘Why California’s New Home Solar Requirement Includes Batteries and Not Zero Net Energy,” Clean Energy Group, March 17, 2018, https://www.cleanegroup.org/why-californias-new-home-solar-requirement-includes-batteries-and-not-zero-net-energy/.
(13) California Public Utilities Commission, “Residential Zero Net Energy Building Integration Cost Analysis,” Customer Distributed Energy Resources Grid Integration Study, Document No.: 10007451-HOu-r-02-D, issue: D, Status: Final, October 18, 2017, http://www.cpuc.ca.gov/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=6442455013.
(14) California Energy Commission – Efficiency Division, “2019 Building Energy Efficiency Standards: Frequently Asked Questions,” March 2018, http://www.energy.ca.gov/title24/2019standards/documents/2018_Title_24_2019_Building_Standards_FAQ.pdf.
(15) Colthorpe, Andy, “‘Minimal Downtime’: Younicos Swaps Out Lead-Acid for Lithium at Texas’ Notrees Wind Farm,” Energy Storage News, December 14, 2017, www.energy-storage.news/news/minimal-downtime-younicos-swaps-out-lead-acid-for-lithium-at-texas-notrees.
(16) Statoil already has one such offshore wind and battery storage system up and running in the UK. See: Runyon, Jennifer, “UK’s First Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Up and Running,” Renewable Energy World, October 18, 2017, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/articles/pt/2017/10/uk-s-first-floating-offshore-wind-turbine-up-and-running.html. Proposals are also coming to the U.S. See also, Delony, Jennifer, “Bids Are in for Massachusetts Offshore Wind Procurement; Storage included,” Renewable Energy World, December 20, 2017, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/articles/2017/12/bids-are-in-for-massachusetts-offshore-wind-procurement-storage-included.html.
(17) Press release, “National Grid Develops Innovative Solution for an Island Community’s Unique Energy Challenges,” National Grid, Massachusetts, November 2017, https://news.nationalgridus.com/2017/11/national-grid-develops-innovative-solution-island-communitys-unique-energy-challenges/.
(18) Deign, Jason. “Siemens Gamesa Pursues Hybrid Wind and Solar Projects With Energy Storage,” Greentech Media, May 18, 2018. https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/the-siemens-gamesa-energy-storage-roadmap
(19) Deign, Jason. “Vattenfall’s Formula for Low-Cost Energy Storage Deployment,” Greentech Media, June 4, 2018. https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/vattenfall-formula-for-low-cost-energy-storage-deployment
(20) See, Kuser, Michael and Rick Heidorn, Jr., “Mass Receives Three OSW Proposals, Including Storage,” RTO Insider, December 22, 2017, www.rtoinsider.com/massachusetts-offshore-wind-energy-82937.
(21) Williams, Diarmaid, “Energy Storage Association Chief Responds to Former US Energy Secretary Comments,” Power Engineering International, February 1, 2018, www.powerengineeringint.com/articles/2018/02/energy-storage-association-chief-responds-to-former-us-energy-secretary-comments.html.
(22) Ram, Manish et al, “Global Energy System Based on 100% Renewable Energy – Power Sector,” Power Engineering International, February 1, 2018, www.powerengineeringint.com/articles/2018/02/energy-storage-association-chief-responds-to-former-us-energy-secretary-comments.html.
(23) Weaver, John, “100 hours and longer: ARPA-E seeks 5¢/kWh energy storage,” PV Magazine, May 3, 2018, https://pv-magazine-usa.com/2018/05/03/100-hours-and-longer-as-arpa-e-seeks-5%C2%A2-kwh-energy-storage/.
(24) Enkhardt, Sandra, “AT Solar builds innovative storage project based on hydrogen in Sweden,” PV Magazine, May 3, 2018, https://www.pv-magazine.com/2018/05/03/at-solar-builds-innovative-storage-project-based-on-hydrogen-in-sweden/.
(25) Chang, Julie et al., “The Value of Distributed Electricity Storage in Texas: Proposed Policy for Enabling Grid-Integrated Storage Investments,” The Brattle Group, March 2015, http://files.brattle.com/files/7924_the_value_of_distributed_electricity_storage_in_texas_-_proposed_policy_for_enabling_grid-integrated_storage_investments_full_technical_report.pdf.
(26) Det Norske Veritas (U.S.A.), inc. (DNV GL), “Final Report: Considerations for ESS Fire Safety,” Report no.: OAPuS301WiKO(PP151894), Rev. 4, Consolidated Edison and NYSERDA, February 9, 2017, https://www.nyserda.ny.gov/-/media/Files/Publications/Research/Energy-Storage/20170118-ConEd-NYSERDA-Battery-Testing-Report.pdf.
(27) Cole, PC and DR Conover, “Energy Storage System Guide for Compliance with Safety Codes and Standards,” Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, June 2016, https://energymaterials.pnnl.gov/pdf/PNNL-SA-118870.pdf.
(29) Codes and Standards, “NFPA 855: Standard for the Installation of Stationary Energy Storage Systems,” National Fire Protection Association, www.nfpa.org/codes-and-standards/all-codes-and-standards/list-of-codes-and-standards/detail?code=855.
(30) Cascadia Region Earthquake Workgroup (CREW), “Cascadia Subduction Zone Earthquakes: A Magnitude 9.0 Earthquake Scenario,” Update 2013, www.ci.florence.or.us/sites/default/files/fileattachments/community/page/581/cascadia_subduction_zone_scenario_update_2013_final.pdf; http://www.oregon.gov/oem/Documents/01_ORP_Cascadia.pdf.
(31) Many lithium-ion chemistries do not depend on cobalt, for instance lithium-iron phosphate and lithium-manganese oxide batteries. These chemistries tend to have lower energy densities than batteries utilizing cobalt, which may limit their application as vehicle batteries but may not pose a barrier for stationary applications. See Deign, Jason and Pyper, Julia, “11 Lithium-Ion Battery Makers That Don’t Need Cobalt,” Greentech Media, July 9, 2018, https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/11-lithium-ion-battery-makers-that-dont-need-cobalt.
(32) “What’s Life Like for Kids Mining Cobalt for Our Gadgets?” CBS News, March 6, 2018, www.cbsnews.com/news/children-cobalt-mining-congo-cbsnews-investigation-ziki-swaze.
(33) Gerdes, Justin, “With Focus on the Model 3, What’s Up With Tesla’s Storage and Solar Businesses?,” Greentech Media, May 11, 2018, https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/the-focus-is-on-the-model-3-whats-going-on-in-teslas-storage-and-solar-bus.
(34) Petroff, Alanna, “Carmakers and big tech struggle to keep batteries free from child labor,” CNN, May 3, 2018, https://money.cnn.com/2018/05/01/technology/cobalt-congo-child-labor-car-smartphone-batteries/index.html.
(35) Press release, “World’s Largest 2nd-Use Battery Storage is Starting Up,” Diamler, September 13, 2016, http://media.daimler.com/marsMediaSite/en/instance/ko/Worlds-largest-2nd-use-battery-storage-is-starting-up.xhtml?oid=13634457. See also, Nissan, “XSTORAGE: Energy Storage Solution,” Nissan: Energy Storage, Accessed March 23, 2018, www.nissan.co.uk/experience-nissan/electric-vehicle-leadership/xstorage-by-nissan.html; and see Field, Kyle, “Nissan Pushes into Energy Storage With Second-Life Battery Initiative,” Clean Technica, March 24, 2018, https://cleantechnica.com/2018/03/24/nissan-pushes-energy-storage-second-life-battery-initiative.
(36) Berndt, Chad, “A Tesla is Greener Than You Think and Getting Greener – a Look at Manufacturing,” Teslarati, July 4, 2017, www.teslarati.com/tesla-greener-think-getting-greener-look-manufacturing.
(37) Lambert, Fred, “Tesla Reveals More Details About ‘Gigafactory 1’: Model 3 Battery Pack, Largest rooftop Solar Array in the World (70MW), & More,” Electrek, January 10, 2017, https://electrek.co/2017/01/10/tesla-gigafactory-1-model-3-battery-pack-rooftop-solar. Researchers also are exploring new ways to recycle lithium-ion batteries by stripping out degraded particles in cathodes and reenergizing them at the same performance levels. See, Nikolewski, Rob, “UCSD Professor Devises Ways to Recycle Lithium-ion Batteries,” The San Diego Union-Tribune, March 16, 2018, http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/business/energy-green/sd-fi-battery-recycling-20180316-story.html.
(38) Energy Storage Technology Advancement Partnership (ESTAP) Webinar: “State of the U.S. Energy Storage industry: 2017 Year in Review,” Clean Energy States Alliance, February 13, 2014, www.cesa.org/assets/2018-Files/ESTAP-webinar-slides-2.13.2018.pdf. More innovation is coming to lithium-ion batteries. Researchers are working on putting new more efficient materials inside the battery. See, Mims, Christopher, “Battery Life Powers Ahead Toward Sizable Gains,” Wall Street Journal, March 19, 2018, https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-battery-boost-weve-been-waiting-for-is-only-a-few-years-out-1521374401.
(39) A good, though somewhat dated law review article addresses many of the legal and regulatory issues with “vehicle to grid” applications of car batteries, including a discussion of this warranty issue at page 360. See, Hutton, Matthew and Thomas Hutton, “Legal and Regulatory Impediments to Vehicle-to-Grid Aggregation,” William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review, Volume 36, issue 2, Article 3. 2012, http://scholarship.law.wm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1540&context=wmelpr. As with the other emerging issues section topics, we realize advocates and others with a deeper involvement in these issues might well have opposing views or would want to correct our impressions. We welcome those comments.
(40) Sobczak, Blake. “Car warranties pose unexpected hurdle for EV owners,” E&E News, June 26, 2018. https://www.eenews.net/energywire/2018/06/26/stories/1060086439
(41) Shahan, Zachary, “Tesla CTO JB Straubel On Why EVs Selling Electricity to The Grid is Not As Swell As it Sounds,” Clean Technica, August 22, 2016, https://cleantechnica.com/2016/08/22/vehicle-to-grid-used-ev-batteries-grid-storage.
(42) Press Release, “Hawaii Study Finds Vehicle-to-Grid Discharge Detrimental to EV Batteries,” Green Car Congress, May 15, 2017, www.greencarcongress.com/2017/05/20170515-v2g.html.
(43) Thomson Reuters Sponsored Material, “Fly Electric: The Aircraft of the Future Takes Flight.” The Atlantic. 2018, www.theatlantic.com/sponsored/thomson-reuters-why-2025-matters/electric-flight/208.
(44) Adams, Eric, “The Age of Electric Aviation is Just 30 Years Away,” Wired, May 31, 2017, www.wired.com/2017/05/electric-airplanes-2.
(45) Jackman, Frank, “In-Flight Fires” Flight Safety Foundation, June 8, 2015, https://flightsafety.org/asw-article/in-flight-fires.
(46) 16 U.S.C. § 2601. U.S. Government Publishing Office. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/granule/USCODE-2010-title16/USCODE-2010-title16-chap46-sec2601.
(47) Luz Development and Finance Corporation, 51 FERC ¶61,078. 1990. See also Raper, Kristine, “Powering America: Reevaluating PURPA’s Objectives and its Effects on Today’s Consumers,” Written testimony before the Subcommittee on Energy, U.S. House of Representatives, September 6, 2017, http://docs.house.gov/meetings/IF/IF03/20170906/106362/HHRG-115-IF03-Wstate-RaperK-20170906.pdf.
(48) Kateri Gamache, Caileen, “Solar + Storage: US Regulatory Issues,” Norton Rose Fulbright, August 2017, www.nortonrosefulbright.com/knowledge/publications/155276/solar-storage-us-regulatory-issues.
(49) Blockchain initially referred to a “block” of records linked cryptographically in a series of boxes to record Bitcoin transactions, an open and linked ledger or database without the need for a middleman to undertake sales. It has now assumed a metaphorical status to refer to protected and secure distributed methods to share and exchange online data among users of a network. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blockchain.
(50) Papajak, Urszula, “Can the Brooklyn Microgrid Project Revolutionize the Energy Market?” The Beam, November 27, 2017, https://medium.com/thebeammagazine/can-the-brooklyn-microgrid-project-revolutionise-the-energy-market-ae2c13ec0341.
(51) Colthorpe Andy, “Blockchain and Batteries Will Assist German Grid Operator in Integrating Renewables,” Energy Storage News, May 2, 2017, www.energy-storage.news/news/blockchain-and-batteries-will-assist-german-grid-operator-in-integrating-re.
(52) Stoker, Liam, “Blockchain-Powered P2P Energy Trading on Trial at Britain’s Biggest Social Housing PV Installation,” Energy Storage News, November 22, 2017, www.energy-storage.news/news/blockchain-powered-p2p-energy-trading-on-trial-at-britains-biggest-social-h.
(53) Orcutt, Mike, “How Blockchain Could Give Us a Smarter Energy Grid,” MIT Technology Review, October 16, 2017, www.technologyreview.com/s/609077/how-blockchain-could-give-us-a-smarter-energy-grid.
(54) Deign, Jason, “15 Firms Leading the Way on Energy Blockchain,” Greentech Media, October 27, 2017, www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/leading-energy-blockchain-firms#gs.25ynTkw.
(55) Interconnection barriers have slowed the adoption of BTM storage in some areas, such as California and Massachusetts, where markets were starting to make significant inroads. The interstate renewable Energy Council (IREC) has published a guide for utility regulators on interconnection for solar+storage systems, which is available online. See: Press release, “New Guide for Utility Regulators: Priority Considerations for Interconnection Standards,” Interstate Renewable Energy Council, August 2017, https://irecusa.org/2017/08/new-guide-for-utility-regulators-priority-considerations-for-interconnection-standards.
(56) ERRATA Notice, “Electric Storage Participation in Markets Operated by Regional Transmission Organizations and independent System Operators,” Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Docket Nos. RM16-23-000 AD16-20-000, February 28, 2018, www.ferc.gov/whats-new/comm-meet/2018/021518/E-1.pdf.
(57) Maloney, Peter, “FERC Order Opens ‘Floodgates’ for Energy Storage in Wholesale Markets,” Utility Dive, February 20, 2018, www.utilitydive.com/news/ferc-order-opens-floodgates-for-energy-storage-in-wholesale-markets/517326.
(58) See SB 18-009, “Allow Electric Utility Customers Install Energy Storage Equipment,” Colorado General Assembly. 2018, https://leg.colorado.gov/bills/sb18-009; See Svaldi, Aldo, “Colorado Among First States to Give Customers the Right to Store Energy from Alternative Sources,” Denver Post, March 22, 2018, https://www.denverpost.com/2018/03/22/colorado-alternative-energy-storage.
(59) Ward, John, “Information Technology is a Basic Human Right,” Forbes, March 11, 2014, https://www.forbes.com/sites/sap/2014/03/11/information-technology-is-a-basic-human-right/#7716864648de.
(60) Alexander, Leigh, “Internet Access is Now a Basic Human Right: Part 1—Chips with Everything Tech Podcast,” The Guardian, July 29, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/audio/2016/jul/29/internet-access-human-right-tech-podcast.
(61) Shackelford, Scott, “Why Cybersecurity Needs to be Considered an Absolute Human Right,” Futurism, February 18, 2017, https://futurism.com/why-cybersecurity-needs-to-be-considered-as-an-absolute-human-right.
(62) Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, “Energy Justice in Maryland’s residential and renewable Energy Sectors,” Renewable Maryland, October 2015, https://ieer.org/resource/climate-change/energy-justice-marylands-residential.