Solar+Storage Reliability Puts Gas Plants at Risk

Author: Seth Mullendore, Clean Energy Group | Project: Phase Out Peakers

Photo Credit: Malp/

The results are in from a new wind and solar study commissioned by California’s three big investor owned utilities. The main takeaway: solar paired with battery storage is just as reliable as conventional fossil fuel power plants when it comes to delivering power when the grid needs it most.

These results could be the final nail in the coffin for California’s remaining gas peaker plants. The findings were the same in Arizona and New Mexico, which were also included in the study.

The purpose of the study was to determine the “effective load carrying capability” of various solar configurations and wind turbines, both with and without battery storage. Effective load carrying capability (ELCC) is a technical term for being there when you need it. It’s basically a calculation of the reliability of a resource represented as a percentage, so the higher the percentage the more likely a resource will be available at a given time. A perfect generation resource that is always fully available would have an ELCC of 100 percent.

The study looked at three solar-alone configurations (fixed-axis PV, tracking PV, and distributed behind-the-meter PV), solar+storage hybrid systems, wind-alone, and wind +storage hybrid systems across several regions in California, Arizona, and New Mexico. ELCC values were calculated for the years 2022, 2026, and 2030. This study looked only at 4-hour duration storage for the hybrid systems. (Future studies will explore 1 and 2-hour duration battery systems.)

Solar-alone didn’t fair so well. The analysis by Astrapé Consulting calculated solar ELCC values ranging from 4 to 5.8 percent in 2022. That’s very low. What those numbers mean is that a 100-megawatt solar system would only be expected to contribute up to about 6 megawatts of power when called upon during periods of high energy demand. This has a lot to do with the fact that the grid typically needs energy the most when solar isn’t producing much, during evening hours. Things only get worse over time. As more solar comes online, the ELCC drops to less than one percent in 2030.

Wind does better, with a 30 percent ELCC in 2022 and 25 percent ELCC in 2030. Still a long way from 100 percent.

Just Add Batteries

Adding a bit of battery storage changes the ELCC numbers dramatically, particularly for solar.

In 2022, solar with single-axis tracking jumps from less than 6 percent to over 99 percent ELCC, that’s essentially 100 percent reliability. The numbers still decrease over time but only down to 92 percent in 2030, still awfully good.

Based on these numbers, the utility-commissioned study effectively assigns the same high level of reliability to solar+storage that utilities and grid operators typically reserve for traditional power plants.

Storage also significantly improves the reliability of wind projects, though not to the same degree as solar. Pairing wind with a 4-hour battery system more than doubles wind ELCC values, to 62 percent in 2022 and 50 percent in 2030.

The reason behind the much larger ELCC gains for solar+storage, is that solar installations were found to be able to consistently charge a paired 4-hour battery system. Wind resources lacked the same level of consistency. Because solar has enough capacity to charge a 4-hour battery during sunny daytime hours, that capacity will still be there, ready to be discharged, when utilities need it – day or night.

Goodbye Peaker Power Plants?

The study gives a major boost to solar+storage developers looking to compete head-to-head with fossil-fuel resources, particularly California’s fleet of gas peaker plants – a process that’s already moving forward with battery projects both replacing existing peaker plants and derailing plans to build new ones. But there are still around 50 gas peakers currently operating across the state.

The majority of the time these power plants are called upon they run for less than four hours. That makes them extremely vulnerable for replacement by batteries. The analysts at Astrapé also found that adding more solar tends to steepen and narrow the shape of peak energy demand curves, meaning that the duration of peak demand events will get shorter as more solar comes online. A lot of solar is expected to be developed in California over the next few years. Shorter peak periods open up an even larger market opportunity for battery storage and hybrid solar+storage projects.

A new study from MIT researchers came to a similar conclusion. The study explores the value of energy storage as the penetration of solar and wind on the grid increase to 50 percent and higher. The researchers found three key value opportunities for storage in highly renewable grids: 1) storing excess renewable generation that would otherwise be curtailed, 2) deferring transmission upgrades by relieving grid congestion, and, last but not least, 3) replacing thermal generation, specifically gas peaker plants that only run for a few hours at a time.

This doesn’t mean peaker plants are going to disappear everywhere overnight. There are over a thousand of them scattered around the country, mostly concentrated near population centers and often located in low-income communities and communities of color. High capacity market prices will keep these expensive, inefficient power plants alive in many regions and not all grid operators view four hours as providing firm capacity (most notably PJM which requires 10-hour duration batteries).

Still, the California study is another step in the right direction to phase out peaker plants and should accelerate their replacement in California. States with similar market environments should also take note and look to solar+storage as clean, reliable alternatives to gas plants for meeting peak demand.

Massachusetts and Vermont crack the code on distributed energy storage

Author: Todd Olinsky-Paul, Clean Energy Group | Projects: Resilient Power Project, Energy Storage Trends

In 2019, Massachusetts commenced a nation-leading experiment by, for the first time, incorporating behind-the-meter energy storage into the Commonwealth’s three-year energy efficiency plan, through the ConnectedSolutions program, as a peak demand reducing measure. The state argued that this represented a new type of efficiency. Batteries do not generally reduce net consumption of electricity – the goal of traditional efficiency measures – but they are very good at shifting consumption from peak to off-peak times, something traditional efficiency measures can’t do. This is a highly valuable service, as shown by a report, State of Charge, published by the Massachusetts clean energy agencies in 2017, which found that 40 percent of the state’s annual spend on electricity was attributable to just 10 percent of the hours each year when demand was highest. Lowering those occasional demand peaks can make the whole system more efficient and lower capacity and transmission costs for utilities, in turn saving money for the ratepayers. The ConnectedSolutions program, launched statewide in 2019, does just that.

Meanwhile, in neighboring Vermont, the state’s largest utility was facing similar peak-related expenses. Green Mountain Power had already installed a large utility-scale battery in Rutland, but was interested in the potential to scale storage up by using smaller, behind-the-meter batteries. GMP conducted a pilot project in 2016, placing batteries in 14 modular homes comprising an affordable housing development, McKnight Lane, in rural Waltham, VT. Through this pilot, GMP learned to aggregate and coordinate behind-the-meter battery charging and discharging, and worked out software bugs in the battery controls. Based on the success of McKnight Lane, GMP launched a customer battery program in partnership with Tesla, and then a Bring-Your-Own-Device (BYOD) battery program that allowed customers to choose between several home battery manufacturers. GMP now has more than 2,000 enrolled battery customers, and saves hundreds of thousands of dollars each year by dispatching behind-the-meter batteries during monthly and annual peak hours.

Both the MA and VT programs have been widely replicated. ConnectedSolutions is now offered in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut, and has been proposed in New Hampshire. The GMP BYOD model has been copied by utilities in New Hampshire, New York, California, Oregon and Utah. Announcements of new “virtual power plant” pilot programs seem to pop up almost daily.

The two models – ConnectedSolutions and BYOD – are different, but have much in common. The main difference is that ConnectedSolutions is run through state energy efficiency programs, while BYOD is typically considered part of utility demand response programs. In both cases, customers purchase and install behind-the-meter batteries, often with favorable financing, and sign a contract with their utility to provide battery services on a pay-for-performance basis. Utilities the pay customers for the peak demand reductions the batteries actually provide, and dispatch the aggregated, distributed storage fleet during peak demand hours to reduce capacity and transmission costs, meaning batteries are directly competing with fossil fuel peaker plants. Residential customers in Massachusetts can achieve a battery payback in less than seven years based on program performance payments alone, and receive back-up power benefits – their primary motivation for purchasing batteries, according to a recent report – starting on day one (this is particularly important now, when millions of people are reliant on powered home health equipment). Both the ConnectedSolutions and BYOD programs can be marketed to customers by the utility and/or third party developers.

These programs solve a lot of problems that have slowed the adoption of battery storage. For utilities, they allow remote dispatch of customer-owned batteries, thus addressing concerns about customers who might otherwise dispatch batteries on non-coincident peaks. For customers, they provide a funding stream for battery purchases, substantially improving project economics (CEG has conducted economic analysis showing that ConnectedSolutions provides higher returns on investment than a demand charge management model). For policy makers, they directly tie distributed storage resources to ratepayer savings, thus making it easier to justify allocating public funds to support these programs. For lenders, they de-risk battery storage, by making revenues predictable and backing project economics with utility contracts. And for storage advocates, these programs greatly increase the customer base. ConnectedSolutions, for example, is open to all residential and commercial customers in the states where it is adopted (by contrast, the demand charge management model only works for large commercial customers who happen to be paying high demand charge rates, have peaky load profiles, and can consistently and accurately predict their facility demand peaks).

If utilities are to address increasing renewable penetration and 100% clean energy state policy goals, as well as calls for increased resiliency, distributed storage must be brought to scale and harnessed to provide real grid benefits. The ConnectedSolutions and BYOD models show how storage can be added to existing efficiency and demand response programs to seamlessly transition existing funds to support this new technology.


This blog post was originally posted on Energy Central. Republished with permission from CyberTech, Inc. Energy Central has been a leading news and information provider to the global power industry for over 20 years. Today we are now more than news – we are an online social network bringing together the smartest people in the power industry to share, connect, collaborate and learn. Visit today to learn more.

ConnectedSolutions First Results: Massachusetts’ groundbreaking efficiency program for customer batteries receives its first report card

Author: Todd Olinsky-Paul, Clean Energy Group | Projects: Resilient Power Project, Energy Storage Trends, Energy Storage and Health, Phase Out Peakers

Last year, with technical support from Clean Energy Group (CEG), Massachusetts became the first state to officially incorporate behind-the-meter battery storage into its energy efficiency plan, and utilities began enrolling customers across the state in a groundbreaking pay-for-performance program. Now, preliminary results from this program, called ConnectedSolutions, have been published in a report from Navigant Consulting – and it appears, based on limited early enrollment data, that customer storage is a winner.

The report, titled “2019 Residential Energy Storage Demand Response Demonstration Evaluation – Summer Season,” was produced on behalf of utilities National Grid and Unitil. It provides a preview of the earliest results from those two utilities in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Navigant used customer surveys as well as utility data to construct a picture of how the ConnectedSolutions program performed during the summer of 2019, and how participants felt about it. Although enrollment at that point was quite limited – some 65 households participated in National Grid’s territory, plus four households in Unitil’s territory – the report shows that customer batteries are being effectively used by the utility to reduce expensive regional demand peaks. It also shows that participating customers overwhelmingly like the program and plan to continue with it.

These results are important, and not just for one or two states. In the 18 months since Massachusetts adopted its battery program, the concept has spread across New England, with similar programs now offered in Rhode Island and Connecticut, and under consideration in New Hampshire. Meanwhile, Green Mountain Power in Vermont and Liberty Utilities in New Hampshire developed their own customer battery programs. Outside of New England, customer battery programs for peak demand reduction have been developed by PSEG on Long Island, Orange & Rockland Utilities in the northwestern suburbs of New York City, Portland General Electric and Oregon, and Sacramento Municipal Utility District and Southern California Edison in California.

Although not all these programs operate through state efficiency programs, they all embrace the same core concept that aggregated batteries behind customer meters can provide valuable utility services, benefiting all ratepayers while providing cost savings and resiliency to the homes and businesses that host them. The resiliency benefit to customers is particularly important given the current global pandemic – and was extremely important to customers even before the pandemic, as the Navigant report shows.

The ConnectedSolutions model, as implemented in Massachusetts, is not perfect. There are shortcomings in its design, among them the fact that it lacks provisions to encourage and support participation by low- and moderate-income customers, and does not provide added incentives for resilient systems that can support critical customer and community services during grid outages. However, it does represent a major new model for funding distributed storage and reducing dependence on fossil fuel peaker plants. As such, the preliminary results reported by Navigant are worth examining.


Customer Satisfaction

Among the findings of the Navigant report is that the ConnectedSolutions program is very popular with the participating residential customers. Ninety-seven percent of participating customers said they intended to continue to participate and would recommend the program to others.

This is an impressive approval rating, especially as compared with other, similar programs. For example, in 2017, National Grid announced that its two-year Smart Energy Solutions (SES) program, serving 11,000 customers in Worcester, MA, had achieved a customer satisfaction rate of 69 percent. The SES program, like ConnectedSolutions, rewards customers for lowering demand at peak times, but does so by adjusting thermostats and turning off appliances.

Utilities are now beginning to realize that customer batteries can provide the same load-reducing benefits as traditional demand response, but without negatively affecting the comfort and productivity of participants. And in addition, batteries provide customers with a valuable resilient power benefit, backing up their critical loads during power outages – something smart thermostats and appliances can’t do. As noted by Eversource and Unitil in a recent docket filing in New Hampshire, where the two utilities are proposing to replicate the Massachusetts ConnectedSolutions program, “Eversource and Unitil are proposing… incentives higher than other Direct Load Control offerings. This higher incentive assumes that storage performance does not impact customer comfort, will be more robust, more available, less likely to be overridden and thus more reliable as a resource overall.”

The importance of resiliency

The Navigant report confirmed that a large majority of participating customers – 65 percent – value backup power above other battery benefits and cited this as the primary reason why customers decided to install storage in their homes (see Figure 1). The second most valued benefit, cost savings, came in at 17 percent.

Figure 1: Participant motivations for battery purchase. Source: Navigant Consulting

This indicates that home batteries may enjoy a significant advantage over traditional energy efficiency and demand response measures, which cannot provide backup power in a grid outage. It also helps to explain how the ConnectedSolutions program is able to provide peak load reduction services to utilities at a relatively low cost: the program allows utilities to pay only for those battery services they actually receive, while customers are willing to make the initial investment because they understand that in addition to an eventual payback, they will also enjoy an immediate resiliency benefit. The ability of batteries to provide different services to different stakeholders allows utilities and customers to share the costs and benefits of a single device in a way that benefits both parties.

It is important to bear in mind that this result is based on surveys conducted in the fall of 2019, before the Covid-19 pandemic, and therefore does not reflect current added concerns about home health care in an era of mass quarantine and remote attendance at work and school. At least 2.5 million individuals in the U.S. rely on powered home health devices such as oxygen concentrators and nebulizers; the current pandemic – along with increased grid outages due to storms, wildfires and other natural disasters – has exposed the vulnerability of this home health population to grid outages. Not only that, but the pandemic is expected to result in slower recovery from grid outages caused by hurricanes and other natural disasters. In the current climate, it is probably safe to assume that backup power has become even more important to many people than it previously was.

Participation in peak-reducing events

Utilities pay ConnectedSolutions customers for the load reductions their home batteries can provide during costly regional load peaks. The program does not require participants to respond to every event signaled by the utility, although the customer payoff is reduced if customers opt out of events. The Navigant report found that enrollee participation was quite high: 94 percent of participants never opted out of an event.

However, average performance – measured in terms of the percentage of overall battery capacity discharged during peak shaving events – was lower. The study found that two-thirds of the batteries enrolled successfully performed in every event they participated in, and 90 percent successfully performed in more than 60 percent of the events they participated in; but “successful performance” is a fairly low bar, being defined by Navigant as a battery discharging more than 20 percent of its maximum capacity during an event. The study also notes that two batteries failed to successfully respond throughout the season. Overall, the average savings for any event represented 64 percent of the available aggregated battery capacity.

According to the report, this reduced average response is likely due to combination of factors, including some battery customers opting out of some events, some customers reserving a portion of their battery capacity for backup power in case of an outage, and some batteries not being completely charged prior to events, which would reduce their ability to respond. Other possible causes include inverter efficiency losses, or device settings that differ from assumptions in the calculation of maximum expected discharge.

Investigating these and other possible causes of low average battery response is a recommendation of the report.

Customer payments

Participating customers are paid seasonally based on their average discharge across all event hours in the season. For the summer 2019 season, Navigant reports that the average residential customer battery discharge was 5.5 kW. Given the summer payment rate of $225/kW, this means the average customer in the program would have earned $1,237.5 for the summer season, or $12,375 per customer over a 10-year period (assuming performance levels and payment rates held steady). Adding in the less lucrative winter program, annual payments rise to $1,512.50, or $15,125 over ten years (residential winter rates are $50/kW in the Massachusetts National Grid territory).

One way to gauge the economic attractiveness of the program to potential enrollees is to look at the battery payback period. If a customer were to participate in both the summer and winter programs, based on the reported average discharge, performance payments would average out to $126/month. This more than offsets the monthly loan service payment of $119 the customer would make if he or she took advantage of the Massachusetts HEAT loan program, which offers zero interest loans for energy efficiency improvements, with a seven-year payback period. Again, assuming an installed cost of $10,000 for a battery, the customer could pay off the loan in year six using the performance payments. After that, any additional revenues from participation in ConnectedSolutions would offset the customer’s electric bill (the average monthly residential electric bill in Massachusetts is $131).

These numbers are based on participation in ConnectedSolutions alone. In reality, if Massachusetts customers install storage with solar, they can also qualify for a SMART solar incentive with an additional storage adder.

One aspect of ConnectedSolutions that needs improvement – and is not addressed in the Navigant report – is the lack of provisions for low income customer participation. This issue was raised by CEG when the program was being developed, but despite the assurances of utility administrators, no added incentives for low income customers (or for commercial facilities in underserved neighborhoods) were included in this first version of the program. Developers face higher risk and cost barriers in low-income neighborhoods, so if low- and -middle-income customers are not to be left behind in the roll-out of distributed energy storage, ConnectedSolutions and similar programs must include both carve-outs for LMI participants, and additional incentives to encourage their participation. These important elements should be included when ConnectedSolutions is updated for the 2022-2024 Massachusetts energy efficiency plan.

Program effectiveness

The ConnectedSolutions program is intended to reward customers for lending their battery capacity to utilities, for the purpose of reducing expensive and polluting regional electric demand peaks. Ultimately, its success will be judged on how effectively it achieves this.

The cumulative impact of National Grid’s ConnectedSolutions program in the 2019 summer season is shown in Figure 2. The reason for the increase over time is that more customers enrolled as the season progressed.

Figure 2: Total average savings by event. Source: Navigant Consulting

This chart shows that by the end of the 2019 summer season, with 63 customers enrolled, the program resulted in an average peak demand reduction of about 250 kW, or one-quarter of a megawatt, per event. If the utility continues to call about the same number of events next summer (27), assuming program enrollment and level of participation remained constant, this would amount to about 6.75 MW of peak demand reduction for the season, for residential participants in National Grid territory alone. This amount understates overall program results for the season, since it does not include commercial participants, nor does it include results from other utility territories. Since the utilities continue to enroll more customers, and recently applied to the Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities to expand the ConnectedSolutions program, it is likely that program results will continue to grow over time.

To put this in perspective, there are currently approximately 23 fossil fuel “peaker” plants operational in Massachusetts. These plants burn natural gas, oil and kerosene, and are practically unregulated due to their size (many are under 20 MW in capacity). They earn millions of dollars each year but only operate around 7 percent of the hours each year; and they are frequently sited in low-income urban environments. Distributed energy storage, aggregated and dispatched on peak hours, provides the same service as these fossil fuel peakers, but without the pollution. Solar+storage also provides resiliency benefits, helps to integrate renewables, and saves money for customers – all benefits that fossil fuel peakers do not provide.

In addition to the existing fossil fuel peaker plants, there are many more proposed peakers in the New England ISO interconnection queue. This represents a great opportunity for clean solar PV and energy storage to replace these plants, if state can bring these technologies to scale quickly. Expanding the ConnectedSolutions program is a great tool to achieve this.

Lessons learned

As ConnectedSolutions and related “bring-your-own-device” customer battery programs spread and are replicated in more states and utility territories, more results will emerge, creating opportunities to improve program designs based on lessons learned. The Navigant report is a modest first effort; nevertheless, it provides some recommendations for improving program implementation. For National Grid, there are two main recommendations in the report:

  1. Backup power: Communicate to customers that the utility recognizes the importance of backup power for their homes and businesses; establish a recommended battery reserve level for customers to maintain for this purpose; and make sure customers understand that battery discharge events will not be called prior to storms that could cause grid outages, to ensure customers get the maximum possible resilience benefit when it is needed. This may help to increase customer enrollment in the program.
  2. Battery tracking and performance: Improve telemetry systems so utilities have better information about customer batteries; improve understanding of why some batteries underperformed; improve tracking of customer participation; monitor and troubleshoot underperforming batteries. This should help to improve average battery response to peak demand events.

To these recommendations, CEG would add:

  1. Expand ConnectedSolutions: The program should have more money devoted to it and should be more actively marketed to customers by all public utilities in the Commonwealth, as well as by third-party aggregators. A proposed daily dispatch program should be added as an alternative to the current “targeted dispatch” model.
  2. Add low income provisions: ConnectedSolutions should include an LMI carve-out, to ensure that some portion of program funds are allocated in underserved communities; and it should include an LMI adder, to help developers in these communities overcome barriers.
  3. Add resiliency provisions: In addition to recognizing the importance customers place on resiliency, the program administrators should also recognize that making solar+storage systems “islandable” (able to support host facility loads during a grid outage) involves an added expense for the customer – but it also helps the utility by reducing impacts from grid outages. In order to help customers achieve this benefit, a resiliency adder should be offered through the program.

CEG will continue to track the New England ConnectedSolution programs as they expand; support their replication in other states; and advocate for needed improvements.


Todd Olinsky-Paul is a senior project director at Clean Energy Group. He directs CEG’s energy storage policy effort in Massachusetts and the New England states. CEG wishes to thank Barr Foundation and Merck Family Fund for their support for this work.

DC Court Upholds Major FERC Storage Order, Should Lead to Massive New Battery Markets Across Country

Authors: Lewis Milford and Todd Olinsky-Paul, Clean Energy Group | Project: Energy Storage Policy

Photo by Ryan McKnight, via Flickr.This morning, the US Court of Appeals for the DC Circuit upheld a major federal rule (FERC Order 841) that should lead to significantly expanded battery storage use in wholesale markets across America.

In a hotly contested case, a three-judge panel of the D.C. Circuit unanimously ruled that FERC has the authority to require states to allow storage to compete with fossil fuel generators in wholesale energy markets. Renewable and energy storage companies (and some states) had argued in support of the rule, while utilities and the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) had opposed it.

(The political and judicial echoes of the decision are fascinating. The rule started in the Obama Administration, was still supported by the current Administration and one of the presiding judges upholding the order is Merritt Garland, of the Mitch McConnell Supreme Court controversy).

The decision is incredibly important for the future growth of the energy storage industry. Briefly, FERC order 841 requires regional transmission organizations and independent grid operators (RTOs and ISOs) to change existing energy market rules that now make it difficult or impossible for storage technologies to participate. These rules are a legacy of the old grid, designed for big, centralized generators and one-way flows of electricity.

In Order 841, FERC recognized that these old market rules must be updated to provide a level playing field for storage, remove barriers to entry, and accommodate the unique attributes of modern storage technologies. To a large extent, it is these unique attributes, such as the ability to absorb and release electricity at different points in time, that makes storage so valuable – but restrictive market rules must be changed if the grid is to fully benefit from these attributes.

This is a major step forward for the storage industry, as well as for storage customers, who will now be able to sell battery services into competitive markets. It is also a win for the environment, because the court’s decision will allow battery storage technologies to compete on a level playing field against gas and other fossil-fueled power plants.

As the cost of storage continues to fall, we are increasingly seeing storage-plus-renewables projects bid successfully into energy and capacity markets. Removing the remaining barriers to such competition can only hasten the build-out of renewables and storage, both at the utility scale and behind-the-meter.

Some experts have estimated that the order could result in up to 50 gigawatts of new energy storage development – good news for those who seek lower energy costs, improved reliability and resiliency, and a cleaner grid.

As the court noted, in recognition of the major technological advances in storage in only the last few years,

…consider the end-user who installs rooftop solar panels connected to batteries, which enable the end-user to maintain power indefinitely even when the end-user is unable to receive power from local service stations, e.g., during a blackout. ESRs (energy storage resources) are quickly becoming industry disrupters because they obliterate a foundational notion underpinning our electrical systems – that electricity cannot be efficiently stored for later use. See EPSA, 136 S. Ct. at 768 (explaining, only a few years ago, that generation resources are forced to generate electricity to match demand in real time). As amici for FERC put it, “[t]he same technological and economic forces that allow us to carry battery-powered computers in our pockets” are now able to efficiently store energy “anywhere on the grid” and can wait to release the electricity when supply is scarce.” (emphasis added).

The court further noted,

This action is intentionally designed to increase wholesale competition, thereby reducing wholesale rates. Keeping the gates open to all types of ESRs – regardless of their interconnection points in the electric energy systems – ensures that technological advances in energy storage are fully realized in the marketplace, and efficient energy storage leads to greater competition, thereby reducing wholesale rates.

This decision, with the FERC Order 841 it approves, recognizes a truth Clean Energy Group has long advocated: that renewable and battery storage technologies are going mainstream, and with strong supportive policy, will compete favorably against fossil fuel plants going forward in major energy markets.

It’s good news for the environment, equity and economic benefits for customers – and for state policy makers who are trying to bring storage to scale.